Twin experiments during the holocaust-Nazi human experimentation - Wikipedia

SS physician Josef Mengele conducted inhumane medical experiments on prisoners at Auschwitz. Mengele used Nazi racial theory to justify a wide spectrum of experiments on Jews and Roma Gypsies. Many of those subjected to Mengele's experiments died as a result or were murdered in order to facilitate post-mortem examination. Mengele escaped to South America after the war, evading prosecution as a war criminal. He died there in

Twin experiments during the holocaust

Twin experiments during the holocaust

Twin experiments during the holocaust

A96 C75 [ Find in a library near you external link ]. These experiments were divided into two parts. He would tell women their date of death in advance, and he would evaluate how their psychological distress would affect their menstruation cycles. Twin experiments during the holocaust outside of Germany. Tracks the post-War careers and activities of doctors who participated in experimentation on human beings during the Third Reich. Science and the Swastika: The Deadly Experiment. The principal locales were Dachau and Auschwitz. New York: Howard Fertig,

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The form asked for duirng brief history and basic measurements, such as age and height. In response, Drs. Once the form was filled out, the twins Twin experiments during the holocaust taken to Mengele. As adults, Eva and Miriam suffered serious health problems. Nightshift nurses adult movie estimates range as high as Twin experiments during the holocaust. Parents were forced to make a quick decision. He predicted that the preventive use of Polygal tablets would reduce bleeding from gunshot wounds sustained during combat or during surgery. He settled in Argentina. They were taken to the experimental block. Among them were Eva and Miriam. Child survivors of Auschwitz, wearing adult-size prisoner jackets.

Nazi human experimentation was a series of medical experiments on large numbers of prisoners, including children, by Nazi Germany in its concentration camps in the early to mid s, during World War II and the Holocaust.

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SS physician Josef Mengele conducted inhumane medical experiments on prisoners at Auschwitz. Mengele used Nazi racial theory to justify a wide spectrum of experiments on Jews and Roma Gypsies. Many of those subjected to Mengele's experiments died as a result or were murdered in order to facilitate post-mortem examination.

Mengele escaped to South America after the war, evading prosecution as a war criminal. He died there in He was the eldest son of Karl Mengele, a prosperous manufacturer of farming implements.

In , he earned a PhD in physical anthropology from the University of Munich. He also held a doctoral degree in genetic medicine. In January , he became the assistant of Dr. Verschuer was a leading scientific figure widely known for his research with twins.

Mengele joined the Nazi Party in He received his medical degree in , the same year he joined the SS. There is little and often contradictory documentation about Mengele's activities between this time and early Wounded while on campaign, Mengele returned to Germany in January In April of , he received a promotion to the rank of SS captain.

This promotion shortly preceded Mengele's transfer to Auschwitz , on May 30, During his time at Auschwitz, Josef Mengele was not the only physician there. It is popularly believed that he was the highest-ranking physician at the camp. This is not the case. Eduard Wirths. He was still under Wirths' jurisdiction. Approximately 30 physicians served at Auschwitz while Mengele was assigned to the camp.

These selections determined who from among the mass of humanity arriving at Auschwitz would be retained for work and who would perish immediately in the gas chambers.

The association is partially explained by his postwar notoriety. Mengele became interested in using twins for medical research through his mentor, Verschuer. Verschuer himself was famous for experimenting with identical and fraternal twins in order to trace the genetic origins of various diseases. During the s, twin research was seen as an ideal tool in weighing the factors of human heredity and environment. Mengele and his mentor had performed a number of legitimate research protocols using twins as test subjects throughout the s.

He had a wide variety of other research interests. Among these was a fascination with heterochromia, a condition in which the irises of an individual's eyes differ in coloration. He himself also conducted several experiments in an attempt to unlock the secret of artificially changing eye color. He also zealously documented in camp inmates the progression of the disease Noma , a type of gangrene which destroys the mucous membrane of the mouth and other tissues.

M uch of our early knowledge of Mengele's activities at Auschwitz comes from Dr. Miklos Nyiszli, a prisoner-physician who assisted Mengele under duress. Nyiszli published his experiences, initially in his native Hungarian, in He spent the next few weeks at the Gross-Rosen concentration camp, until its evacuation. He then made his way west to evade capture by Soviet forces. In the immediate postwar period, Mengele was in US custody. Unaware that Mengele's name already stood on a list of wanted war criminals, US officials quickly released him.

From the summer of until spring , using false papers, Mengele worked as a farmhand near Rosenheim, Bavaria. His prosperous family then aided his emigration to South America. He settled in Argentina.

West German authorities issued a warrant for his arrest in , and a request for extradition in In declining health, Mengele suffered a stroke and drowned while swimming at a vacation resort near Bertioga, Brazil, on February 7, Brazilian forensic experts thereafter positively identified the remains as Josef Mengele. In , DNA evidence confirmed this conclusion. Mengele had eluded his captors for 34 years. We would like to thank The Crown and Goodman Family and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia.

View the list of all donors. You are searching in English. About This Site. Glossary : Full Glossary. Key Facts. Mengele before Auschwitz Mengele joined the Nazi Party in Last Edited: Apr 2, Glossary Terms. Critical Thinking Questions What pressures and motivations existed in medicine during the Nazi era that might have made Mengele's activities and choices possible?

Do similar factors still impact the profession today? Thank you for supporting our work We would like to thank The Crown and Goodman Family and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia.

Sun Lamp The victims were placed under sun lamps which were so hot they would burn the skin. A smiling "uncle Mengele" injected chemicals into the eyes of children in an attempt to change their eye color. They were not selected for the gas chambers, lived in separate quarters, and were given additional food and medical care. First, to establish how long it would take to lower the body temperature to death and second how to best resuscitate the frozen victim. Further information: Hubertus Strughold.

Twin experiments during the holocaust

Twin experiments during the holocaust

Twin experiments during the holocaust

Twin experiments during the holocaust

Twin experiments during the holocaust. Navigation menu

These victims were subject to deprivation of all food and only given the filtered sea water. Hans Eppinger , leaving them gravely injured. A Holocaust survivor named Joseph Tschofenig wrote a statement on these seawater experiments at Dachau.

Tschofenig explained how while working at the medical experimentation stations he gained insight into some of the experiments that were performed on prisoners, namely those where they were forced to drink salt water. Tschofenig also described how victims of the experiments had trouble eating and would desperately seek out any source of water including old floor rags. Tschofenig was responsible for using the X-ray machine in the infirmary and describes how even though he had insight into what was going on he was powerless to stop it.

He gives the example of a patient in the infirmary who was sent to the gas chambers by Dr. Sigmund Rascher simply because he witnessed one of the low-pressure experiments.

The Law for the Prevention of Genetically Defective Progeny was passed on 14 July , which legalized the involuntary sterilization of persons with diseases claimed to be hereditary: weak-mindedness, schizophrenia, alcohol abuse, insanity, blindness, deafness, and physical deformities. The law was used to encourage growth of the Aryan race through the sterilization of persons who fell under the quota of being genetically defective.

Within 4 years, , patients had been sterilized. Carl Clauberg. The targets for sterilization included Jewish and Roma populations. Thousands of victims were sterilized. Aside from its experimentation, the Nazi government sterilized around , people as part of its compulsory sterilization program. Intravenous injections of solutions speculated to contain iodine and silver nitrate were successful, but had unwanted side effects such as vaginal bleeding, severe abdominal pain, and cervical cancer.

Specific amounts of exposure to radiation destroyed a person's ability to produce ova or sperm, sometimes administered through deception. Many suffered severe radiation burns. William E. Seidelman, a professor from the University of Toronto, in collaboration with Dr. Howard Israel of Columbia University published a report on an investigation on the Medical experimentation performed in Austria under the Nazi Regime. In that report he mentions a Doctor Hermann Stieve, who used the war to experiment on live humans.

Stieve specifically focused on the reproductive system of women. He would tell women their date of death in advance, and he would evaluate how their psychological distress would affect their menstruation cycles. After they were murdered, he would dissect and examine their reproductive organs. Some of the women were even raped after they were told the date when they would be killed, so that Dr.

Stieve could study the path of sperm through their reproductive system. Somewhere between December and October , experiments were conducted at Buchenwald to investigate the effect of various poisons. The poisons were secretly administered to experimental subjects in their food.

The victims died as a result of the poison or were killed immediately in order to permit autopsies. In September , experimental subjects were shot with poisonous bullets, suffered torture and often died.

From around November to around January , experiments were conducted at Buchenwald to test the effect of various pharmaceutical preparations on phosphorus burns. These burns were inflicted on prisoners using phosphorus material extracted from incendiary bombs. In early , prisoners at Dachau concentration camp were used by Sigmund Rascher in experiments to aid German pilots who had to eject at high altitudes.

The person was described as 37 years old and in good health before being murdered. Rascher described the victim's actions as he began to lose oxygen and timed the changes in behavior. The year-old began to wiggle his head at 4 minutes, a minute later Rascher observed that he was suffering from cramps before falling unconscious. He describes how the victim then lay unconscious, breathing only 3 times per minute, until he stopped breathing 30 minutes after being deprived of oxygen.

The victim then turned blue and began foaming at the mouth. An autopsy followed an hour later. In a letter from Heinrich Himmler to Dr. Sigmund Rascher on April 13, , Himmler ordered Rascher to continue the high altitude experiments and to continue experimenting on prisoners condemned to death and to "determine whether these men could be recalled to life". If a victim could be successfully resuscitated, Himmler ordered that he be pardoned to "concentration camp for life".

Sigmund Rascher experimented with the effects of Polygal , a substance made from beet and apple pectin , which aided blood clotting. He predicted that the preventive use of Polygal tablets would reduce bleeding from gunshot wounds sustained during combat or during surgery. Subjects were given a Polygal tablet, and shot through the neck or chest, or their limbs amputated without anaesthesia.

Rascher published an article on his experience of using Polygal, without detailing the nature of the human trials and also set up a company to manufacture the substance, staffed by prisoners. Other documented transcriptions from Heinrich Himmler include phrases such as "These researches… can be performed by us with particular efficiency because I personally assumed the responsibility for supplying asocial individuals and criminals who deserve only to die from concentration camps for these experiments.

Karl Brandt et al. At the trial, several of the doctors argued in their defense that there was no international law regarding medical experimentation. An SS doctor was quoted saying that "Jews were the festering appendix in the body of Europe.

The issue of informed consent had previously been controversial in German medicine in , when Dr. Albert Neisser infected patients mainly prostitutes with syphilis without their consent. While Neisser went on to be fined by the Royal Disciplinary Court, Moll developed "a legally based, positivistic contract theory of the patient-doctor relationship" that was not adopted into German law. In response, Drs.

Andrew Conway Ivy stated the Nazi experiments were of no medical value. Some object to the data's use purely on ethical grounds, disagreeing with the methods used to obtain it, while others have rejected the research only on scientific grounds, criticizing methodological inconsistencies.

Relman , editor of The New England Journal of Medicine from till , refused to allow the journal to publish any article that cited the Nazi experiments. Dr John Hayward, justifying citing the Dachau freezing experiments in his research. They eventually decided against using it, on the grounds it would lead to criticism and similar data could be obtained from later studies on animals.

Writing for Jewish Law , Baruch Cohen concluded that the EPA's "knee-jerk reaction" to reject the data's use was "typical, but unprofessional", arguing that it could have saved lives. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on Nazism Organizations. Racial ideology. Final Solution. Nazism outside of Germany. Related topics. Further information: Hubertus Strughold.

I'm trying to make something constructive out of it. US Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 23 March Retrieved Jewish Virtual Library. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on 20 April United States: Thunder's Mouth Press. In January , he became the assistant of Dr. Verschuer was a leading scientific figure widely known for his research with twins.

Mengele joined the Nazi Party in He received his medical degree in , the same year he joined the SS. There is little and often contradictory documentation about Mengele's activities between this time and early Wounded while on campaign, Mengele returned to Germany in January In April of , he received a promotion to the rank of SS captain.

This promotion shortly preceded Mengele's transfer to Auschwitz , on May 30, During his time at Auschwitz, Josef Mengele was not the only physician there. It is popularly believed that he was the highest-ranking physician at the camp. This is not the case. Eduard Wirths. He was still under Wirths' jurisdiction.

Approximately 30 physicians served at Auschwitz while Mengele was assigned to the camp. These selections determined who from among the mass of humanity arriving at Auschwitz would be retained for work and who would perish immediately in the gas chambers. The association is partially explained by his postwar notoriety. Mengele became interested in using twins for medical research through his mentor, Verschuer. Verschuer himself was famous for experimenting with identical and fraternal twins in order to trace the genetic origins of various diseases.

During the s, twin research was seen as an ideal tool in weighing the factors of human heredity and environment. Mengele and his mentor had performed a number of legitimate research protocols using twins as test subjects throughout the s. He had a wide variety of other research interests. Among these was a fascination with heterochromia, a condition in which the irises of an individual's eyes differ in coloration.

He himself also conducted several experiments in an attempt to unlock the secret of artificially changing eye color. He also zealously documented in camp inmates the progression of the disease Noma , a type of gangrene which destroys the mucous membrane of the mouth and other tissues. M uch of our early knowledge of Mengele's activities at Auschwitz comes from Dr. Miklos Nyiszli, a prisoner-physician who assisted Mengele under duress. Nyiszli published his experiences, initially in his native Hungarian, in He spent the next few weeks at the Gross-Rosen concentration camp, until its evacuation.

He then made his way west to evade capture by Soviet forces.

A History of Mengele's Gruesome Experiments on Twins

Between and , at least seventy medical research projects involving cruel and often lethal experimentation on human subjects were conducted in Nazi concentration camps. These projects were carried out by established institutions within the Third Reich and fell into three areas: research aimed at improving the survival and rescue of German troops; testing of medical procedures and pharmaceuticals; and experiments that sought to confirm Nazi racial ideology.

Victims include Jews, Poles, Roma Gypsies , political prisoners, Soviet prisoners of war, homosexuals, and Catholic priests. Twenty-three physicians, scientists, and other senior officials in the Nazi medical administration and the army were put on trial. Seven of the accused were sentenced to death and executed; nine were sentenced to long prison sentences; and seven were acquitted.

Several major perpetrators were never tried for their crimes, among them Josef Mengele, doctor at Auschwitz-Birkenau, who escaped to South America; and Horst Schumann, who was judged physically unfit to stand trial in the s.

It is not meant to be exhaustive. Those unable to visit might be able to find these works in a nearby public library or acquire them through interlibrary loan. Talk to your local librarian for assistance.

All items are in English unless otherwise indicated. R H8 A42 [ Find in a library near you external link ]. A collection of essays by medical historians. Includes seldom-published information from primary sources, such as diary entries and letters from doctors involved in Nazi medical experiments.

Bernadac, Christian. Geneva: Ferni Publishing House, D G4 B [ Find in a library near you external link ]. Based upon testimonies of survivors of Nazi medical experimentation. Includes several photographs and a bibliography. Cohen, Nava. New York: Macmillan, Reference D E v. Provides an overview of the pseudoscientific Nazi experiments conducted in the name of medical research. Discusses in detail medical experimentation at various concentration camps and the legal proceedings at Nuremberg after the war.

Includes a short bibliography. Lifton, Robert Jay, and Amy Hackett. Discusses in detail the Nazification of the medical profession during the Third Reich, and the legal framework that supported medical killing and experimentation on human beings. Reports on the role of Nazi doctors in the euthanasia programs, concentration camps, and extermination centers.

G4 M [ Find in a library near you external link ]. Chronicles the collaboration between German eugenicists and the Nazi administration. Includes an essay by Nobel Laureate James D. Watson in which he considers the impact Nazi-influenced eugenics has had on modern human genetics research in Germany. Klee, Ernst. Auschwitz, die NS-Medizin und ihre Opfer.

Frankfurt am Main: S. Fischer, A96 K54 [ Find in a library near you external link ]. A thorough account of Nazi experimentation on inmates at various concentration camps. Includes several photographs.

Koch, Peter-Ferdinand. H8 K64 [ Find in a library near you external link ]. Documents medical experimentation and euthanasia in Germany and Austria from the late nineteenth century to modern times, with a special emphasis on the period to Tracks the post-War careers and activities of doctors who participated in experimentation on human beings during the Third Reich.

Includes numerous illustrations and photographs. Frankfurter, Bernhard, and Susan E. A96 B [ Find in a library near you external link ].

Includes transcripts of separate follow-up interviews in , photographs, maps, and a glossary. International Auschwitz Committee. New York: Howard Fertig, H8 N39 [ Find in a library near you external link ]. A report featuring eyewitness accounts and primary source materials regarding experimentation on inmates at Auschwitz-Birkenau. Lifton, Robert Jay. New York: Basic Books, H8 L54 [ Find in a library near you external link ].

Nyiszli, Miklos. New York: Fawcett Crest, A96 N [ Find in a library near you external link ]. Pasternak, Alfred. H8 P37 [ Find in a library near you external link ]. Presents translated excerpts of hundreds of letters, affidavits, and other accounts related to medical experimentation on humans conducted in the concentration camps.

Includes an appendix with brief descriptions of the doctors who performed the experiments, and a bibliography. Shelley, Lore. A96 C75 [ Find in a library near you external link ]. A compilation of testimonies by twenty women who endured experimentation by the Nazis at Auschwitz and its sub-camps. Astor, Gerald. Joseph Mengele. New York: D. Fine, DD M46 A87 [ Find in a library near you external link ]. Aziz, Philippe. Doctors of Death. Geneva: Ferni Publishers, H8 A [ Find in a library near you external link ].

Also discusses the numerous pseudoscientific and murderous programs operated by the Nazi medical establishment, and the Medical Case at Nuremberg after the war. Church, Gene. Richardson, TX: S. Damon, P7 C46 [ Find in a library near you external link ]. The true story of Jack Oran, who survived a series of bizarre procedures and experimental surgeries at Auschwitz.

Grabowski, John F. Josef Mengele. M46 G73 [ Find in a library near you external link ]. Biography of Dr. Mengele, written for young adult readers. Part of the Heroes and Villains series. Kor, Eva Mozes. Echoes from Auschwitz: Dr. DS H9 M69 [ Find in a library near you external link ]. H93 K [ Find in a library near you external link ].

Includes photographs and is written for young-adults. Koren, Yehuda, and Eilat Negev. H8 K [ Find in a library near you external link ]. Relates the story of the Ovitz family, musical theater performers and dwarves, who were subjected to medical experiments by Dr.

Joseph Mengele in Auschwitz. Includes photographs and an index.

Twin experiments during the holocaust

Twin experiments during the holocaust

Twin experiments during the holocaust