Bj rn sellnau-Handbook of Air Pollution from Internal Combustion Engines |

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Manual zz. Christopher H. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilm or in any other way, and storage in data banks.

Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the German Copyright Law of September 9, , in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer.

Violations are liable to prosecution under the German Copyright Law. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, etc. This text is intended for students interested in the design of classical and novel IC engine control systems.

Its focus lies on the control-oriented mathematical description of the physical processes involved and on the model-based control system design and optimization. This text has evolved from a lecture series held during the last several years in the mechanical engineering ME department at ETH Zurich. The target readers are graduate ME students with a thorough understanding of basic thermodynamic and fluid dynamics processes in internal combustion engines ICE. Other prerequisites are knowledge of general ME topics calculus, mechanics, etc.

Students with little preparation in basic ICE modeling and design are referred to [64], [97], [], and []. Why has this text been written? One of the main reasons that this has occurred is the very high energy density of liquid hydrocarbon fuels.

Each goal can be achieved only with the help of control systems. This text addresses these issues by offering an introduction to model-based control system design for ICE. What can be learned from this text?

The primary emphasis is put on the ICE torque production, pollutant formation, etc. Mathematical models for some of these processes will be developed below. Using these models, selected feedforward and feedback control problems will then be discussed. This includes some aspects of experimental parameter identification and model validation. What cannot be learned from this text?

This text treats ICE systems, i. The focus is on those problem areas in which the authors have had the opportunity to work during earlier projects. Acknowledgments Many people have implicitly helped us to prepare this text. Specifically our teachers, colleagues and students have helped to bring us to the point where we felt ready to write this text. Onder Preface to the Second Edition Why a second edition? The discussions concerning pollutant emissions and fuel economy of passenger cars constantly intensified since the first edition of this book was published.

Concerns about the air quality, the limited resources of fossil fuels and the detrimental effects of greenhouse gases further spurred the interest of both the industry and academia to work towards improved internal-combustion engines for automotive applications.

Not surprisingly, the first edition of this monograph rapidly sold out. When the publisher inquired about a second edition, we decided to seize this opportunity for revising the text, correcting several errors, and adding some new material. As in the first edition, the text is focused on those problems we were or still are working on in our group at ETH. Many exciting new ideas HCCI combustion, variable-compression engines, engines for high-octane fuels, etc.

However, simply reporting those concepts without being able to round them off by first-hand experience would not add any benefit to the existing literature. Therefore, they are not included in VIII Preface to the Second Edition this book, which should remain an introductory reference for students and engineers new to the topic of internal-combustion engines. Acknowledgements We want to express our gratitude to the many colleagues and students who reported to us errors and omissions in the first edition of this text.

Onder Contents 1 Introduction. The intention is to show the general motivation for using control systems and to give the reader an idea of the problems that can be tackled by feedforward and feedback control systems for both SI and CI engines. The emphasis in this chapter is on qualitative arguments. The mathematically precise formulation is deferred to subsequent chapters.

Those readers not familiar with modern electronic sensors, actuators, and control hardware for automotive applications may want to consult either [7], [], or []. No special distinction is made between scalars, vectors and matrices. The dimensions of a variable, if not a scalar, are explicitly defined in the context. Input signals are usually denoted by u The concentrations are 2 1 Introduction therefore limited to the interval [0, 1]. The concentration of pollutant species are often shown in plots or tables using ppm units part per million , i.

In general, all variables are defined at that place in the text where they are used for the first time. A few exceptions are made where non-SI units are widely accepted. These few cases are explicitly mentioned in the text. These devices help to reduce the fuel consumption and the emission of pollutant species, to increase safety, and to improve the drivability and comfort of passenger cars. An example of such an advanced vehicle is shown in Fig.

Wiring harness of a modern vehicle Maybach , reprinted with the permission of Daimler AG. In such a system, the engine is only one part within a larger structure.

Its main input and output signals are the commands issued by the electronic 1. Figure 1. Control systems were introduced in ICE on a larger scale with the advent of three-way catalytic converters for the pollutant reduction of SI engines. Good experiences with these systems and substantial progress in microelectronic components performance and cost have opened up a path for the application of electronic control systems in many other ICE problem areas. Substructure of a complete vehicle control system.

This TPU synchronizes the engine control commands with the reciprocating action of the engine. The synchronization of 6 1 Introduction amplifier, relays, etc. ECU software has typically been written in assembler code, with proprietary real-time kernels. In the last few years there has been a strong tendency towards standardized high-level programming interfaces. Interestingly, the software is structured to reflect the primary physical connections of the plant to be controlled [70].

Internal structure of an electronic engine control unit. The premixed and stoichiometric combustion of the Otto process permits an extremely efficient exhaust gas purification with three-way catalytic converters and produces very little particulate matter PM.

A standard configuration of such an engine is shown in Fig. Thus, a throttle plate is used upstream of the combustion process in the intake system. These problems will be addressed in Chapters 3 and 4.

Novel approaches, such as electronic throttle control, variable valve timing, etc. Overview over a typical SI engine system structure.

A simplified control-oriented substructure of an SI engine is shown in Fig. In addition, the following feedforward or feedback loops are present in many engine systems:3 2 3 Closed-loop control has been proposed in [60] using the spark plug as an ion current sensor.

Modern SI engines can include several other control loops. Basic SI engine control substructure. For this reason, it is described in some detail. These requirements can only be satisfied if appropriate exhaust gas after-treatment systems are used. The key to clean SI engines is a three-way catalytic converter TWC system whose stationary conversion efficiency is depicted in Fig.

Conversion efficiency of a TWC after light-off, stationary behavior. Only when the engine runs under rich conditions do the unburned hydrocarbon HC and the carbon monoxide CO act as agents reducing the nitrogen oxide on the catalyst, thereby causing the desired TWC behavior.

A precise fuel injection system also is necessary. Finally, appropriate control algorithms have to be implemented in the ECU. Ignition Control Another important example of a control system in SI engines is the spark angle control system.

This example shows how control systems can help improve fuel economy as well. In order to prevent knocking, the compression ratio must be kept below a safe value and ignition timing must be optimized off-line and on-line. A first optimization takes place during the calibration phase experiments on engine or chassis dynamometers of the engine development process. The nominal spark timing data obtained are stored in the ECU. An on-line spark timing control system is required to handle changing fuel qualities and engine characteristics.

The key to this component is a knock sensor and the corresponding signal processing unit that monitors the combustion process and signals the onset of knocking. This correlation is static and is only optimal for that engine from which the ignition data was obtained during the calibration of the ECU. As Fig. The next step in the development of SI engines therefore will be a substantial improvement of their part-load efficiency.

Several ideas have been proposed to improve the fuel efficiency of SI engines, all of which include some control actions, e. For the definition of pme and cm see Sect. These systems reduce the pumping work required in the gas exchange part of the Otto cycle, reduce mechanical friction, or improve the thermodynamic efficiency in part-load conditions.

Another approach to improving part-load efficiency is to include novel power train components, such as starter-generator6 devices, CVTs7 , etc. As mentioned in the Introduction, these approaches will not be analyzed in this text. Interested readers are referred to the textbook [81].

Continuously variable transmissions allow for the operation of the engine at the lowest possible speed and highest possible load, thus partially avoiding the low efficiency points in the engine map. This approach is not compatible with the TWC working principle introduced above.

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This book focuses on droplets and sprays relevant to combustion and propulsion applications. The book includes fundamental studies on the heating, evaporation and combustion of individual droplets and basic mechanisms of spray formation. The contents also extend to the latest analytical, numerical and experimental techniques for investigating the behavior of sprays in devices like combustion engines and gas turbines. In addition, the book explores several emerging areas like interactions between sprays and flames and the dynamic characteristics of spray combustion systems on the fundamental side, as well as the development of novel fuel injectors for specific devices on the application side.

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